Spigelian hernia Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Recovery, Repair

What is Spigelian Hernia?


Spigelian hernia also referred as lateral ventral hernia is a type of hernia that originates from spigelian fascia. This point is basically a junction between rectus abdominis and smilunar line. Spigelian hernia does protrude downward like other types of hernia rather than this it penetrates between muscles of abdominal wall. Due to this reason it does not cause swelling or protrusion that is visible through outside the body making the diagnosis more difficult. Spigelian hernia is not so common as compared to other hernia.

Spigelian hernia are small in size so there is increase risk of strangulation and should be repaired as soon as possible to minimize further damage. There are some diagnostic techniques through which it can be diagnosed like ultrasonography, CT Scan, Barium enema test. CT Scan gives maximum accuracy in case of spigelian diagnosis.

Pain in the region of spigelian fascia due to strangulation is one of the major sign that points out diagnosis towards spigelian hernia. Spigelian hernia is different from other hernia so pain radiates due to penetration between abdominal muscles. Initially pain may be negligible but with the passage of time it may become severe.

Spigelian Hernia Symptoms


Initially symptoms of spigelian hernia are not so prominent patient feels quite normal due to very low pain, no complications and severity. However, some commonly observed symptoms of spigelian hernia are discussed below.


  • Pain in abdominal wall muscles
  • Strangulation
  • Feeling of pressure near spigelian fascia
  • Bloating
  • Constipation
  • Problem in changing posture
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling in extreme cases


Spigelian Hernia Causes


Genetic defect


Some patients are genetically predisposed to hernia due to defects in abdominal wall at some point.  Such kind of patients may have hernia at any stage of their life due to increase risk of abdominal wall rupture. Genetic predisposition is one the major cause of hernia in both men and women.

Weight lifting


Weight lifting is another common cause of hernia because it increases pressure on abdominal wall. Patient above age of 40 years are more prone because muscles of abdominal wall become more fragile and if patient does heavy weight lifting then he is most likely gets spigelian hernia or other type of hernia.

Trauma or Injury


Spigelian hernia may also likely to develop in case of trauma or injury to abdominal wall muscles. Most common examples of these type of injuries are Wrong incision to abdominal wall during surgery or deep cut or wound inside abdominal muscles.

Increased pressure on abdominal wall


Any problem that increases pressure on abdominal wall like in case of obesity, weight lifting, excessive accumulation of air in the abdominal, excessive coughing or frequent vomiting.

Obesity


Obesity is most commonly associated with spigelian hernia. Reason is same as mentioned above that obesity causes persistent pressure on abdominal wall that may lead to rupture of abdominal wall muscles.

Spigelian Hernia Pictures/Images

Spigelian hernia Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Recovery, Repair

Spigelian hernia Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Recovery, Repair

Spigelian hernia Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Recovery, Repair



Spigelian Hernia Treatment, Repair and Recovery Time


As mentioned above, these hernia have high risk of strangulation, so surgery is only option left to repair these hernia. There are two types of surgeries that can be performed to repair spigelian hernia laparoscopic surgery and general surgery. General surgery is of choice when affected area is too large and cannot be managed by laparoscopic surgery. 

However,general surgery is more complicated as compared to laparoscopic surgery and recovery time is much more than laparoscopic type. In mild to moderate cases laparoscopic surgery preferably performed due to rapid recovery, less complications and easy to perform.

Enlarged Circumvallate Papillae Pictures, Causes, Treatment, Cancer

Circumvallate Papillae Definition


Circumvallate papillae (CP) can be defined as vallate papillae or v shaped papillae that are located on the backside of tongue. These dome shaped papillae are present in variable number that ranges from 8-12. They are present in the form of rows with upward projection of about 1-2mm in length. The roots of these papillae are connected with inner layers of skin.

The papilla is formed like a truncated cone, the little end is connected with tongue in downward direction while longer part is connected with some other smaller papillae in upward direction and are surrounded by stratified squamous epithelium.There are four types of papillae.

  • Filiform papillae
  • Fungiform papillae
  • Foliate papillae
  • Circumvallate papillae

What is enlarged circumvallate papillae


Enlarged circumvallate papillae are basically swollen papillae that become enlarged due to some kind of inflammatory reaction. There number of reason of enlarged circumvallate papillae for example viral infection, exaggerated immune response, allergic reactions, Scarring of the tissue etc. However, in most instances there is no pathological cause for the enlargement of these circumvallate papillae.

What causes enlarged circumvallate papillae


Viral Infection


Viral infections like herpes viruses are commonly target the mucous membrane of oral cavity and may spread to tissues of tongue. Such kind of viral infection are responsible for enlarged circumvallate papillae due to inflammation of papillae. In this these enlarged circumvallate papillae become normal upon taking broad spectrum anti-viral drugs like acyclovir.

Smoking


Smoking is one the most common cause of enlarged circumvallate papillae because during smoking you are inhaling around 100 types of chemicals produce from tobacco. These may injurious to body internal tissues as well as papillae of tongue. So, excessive smoking should be avoided in such cases.

Allergic Reaction


Allergy of circumvallate papillae is not so common but it may be the cause for their enlargement due to accumulation of antibodies around these papillae. It is difficult to identify the root cause of these allergic reactions because they may be idiopathic in  nature.

High grade Fever


High grade fever is another possible reason for enlarged circumvallate papillae due to extremely increased temperature of the body like in case of gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, meningitis etc.

Tissue Injury


Tongue tissues are highly sensitive to thermal injury.Drinking any liquid that is too hot may be the reason of enlarged circumvallate papillae along with damage of deep layers of tongue.

Nutritional Deficiency


Vitamins and mineral are very important for proper tissues development. Vitamin C is water soluble vitamin that plays key role in collagen synthesis which is primary constituent in membranes complexion process.



Enlarged circumvallate papillae Pictures/Images


 Enlarged Circumvallate Papillae Pictures, Causes, Treatment, Cancer




 Enlarged Circumvallate Papillae Pictures, Causes, Treatment, Cancer


 Enlarged Circumvallate Papillae Pictures, Causes, Treatment, Cancer



How to get rid of enlarged circumvallate papillae/Treatment


Treatment of enlarged circumvallate papillae is not so complex. In most cases it is self treatable by taking some precautionary measures as given below
  • Avoid drinking liquids that are too hot or cold or having stinging taste. It helps to restore normal circumvallate papillae and decrease pain sensation.
  • Avoid excessive smoking because it causes tongue skin discoloration and injury to superficial layers of skin.
  • In case of infection like herpes infection use some broad spectrum antiviral drugs to reduce the severity and further complications.
  • Always take care of your oral health hygiene like using some broad spectrum disinfectant mouthwash containing chlorhexidene gluconate or menthol.
  • Nutritional deficiency can be corrected through diet like drinking some citrus fruit juices is very beneficial in vitamin C or ascorbic acid deficiency.
  • Avoid from those habits that may cause direct injury to oral mucous membranes like nail biting, squeezing something in mouth that is too hard or tongue piercing.
  • Make periodic visits to your health care provider for routine examinations.

Enlarged circumvallate papillae cancer


Enlarged circumvallate papillae may turn into cancerous form if it grows enough to get involved with lymph nodes of that region. These type of cancers mostly develop around the margins of tongue. Initially they look like small lumps or ulcers spreading aggressively on skin surface. After certain time these lumps turn into cancerous mass that becomes difficult to treat them. Best way to avoid such condition is taking good care of oral cavity and regular visits to your dentist for routine check-up.

Poikilocytosis - Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Types, Treatment

What is Poikilocytosis


Poikilocytosis is a red blood cells (RBCs) disease in which 10% or more red blood cells are developed into abnormal shape most commonly in a spherical shape. These abnormal shaped red blood cells are commonly described as poikilocytes.

Poikilocytes are categorized into several types such as teardrop cell, target cell, spherocyte, sickle cell, schistocyte,  acanthocyte, Ovalocyte , bite cell, echinocyte.  Classification or categorization of poikilocytosis types depends on two factors shape of the red blood cell and diseases or conditions associated with this disease.

Poikilocytosis Definition


Poikilocytosis is defined as abnormal development of red blood blood cells or poikilocytes circulating in the blood in free form. These poikilocytes can be seen though microscope by preparing a thin film of poikilocytes on microscopic slides. Generally these poikilocytes are about 10% or more of the total number of red blood cells (RBCs).

Poikilocytosis Types

Teardrop cell

As name indicates these poikilocytes or RBCs are termed as teardrop due to their resemblence with tear drops.

Target cell

Poikilocytes or RBCs having shape like bull's eye are termed as target cells

Spherocyte

Poikilocytes or RBCs have shape like sphere or having spherical shape are termed as spherocytes.

Sickle cell

Poikilocytes or RBCs having look like crescent are termed as sickel cells

Achistocyte

Poikilocytes or RBCs having no proper shape are termed as schistocytes

Acanthocyte

Poikilocytes or RBCs arranged in a irregular pattern are termed as acanthocytes

Stomatocyte

These are cup shaped Poikilocytes or RBCs.

Bite cell

Due to removal of one or more semicircular portions from the cell margin



Poikilocytes Causes

There are number of possible causes for poikilocytosis some them are given below.

Vitamin B12 or Cyanocobalamin Deficiency


Vitamin B12 or Cyanocobalamin inadequacy is most commonly caused by inability of intestine to absorb sufficient amount of cyanocobalaminon. Vitamin B12 is vital precursor for production of RBCs. Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause some serious problems like neurological disturbances or neuro-degeneration, impaired co-ordination, lack of production of RBCs, anemia and poikilocytosis.

Vitamin B12 deficiency may be cured through diet but severe type of vitamin B12 deficiency can only be treated by giving vitamin B12 through intravenous route.

Vitamin B9 or Folic acid Deficiency


Folic acid or Vitamin B9 is another important precursor which plays key role in biosynthesis of RBCs. Folic acid deficiency is more common in women than men due to pregnancy, increase metabolic requirement of body, stress and hormonal effects on body.

Folate deficiency may lead to anemia or poikilocytosis due improper production of red blood cells (RBCs). This deficiency can be treated by increasing intake of green leafy vegetables because of high amount of folate present in them.

Systemic Diseases


Poikilocytosis may be associated with some kind of other systemic disorders like ulcerative colitis, enteritis, celiac disease, gut disorders and chronic diarrheal conditions that causes impaired absorption of intestines.

Differential Diagnosis of Poikilocytosis


There are number of methods through  poikilocytes can be identified. These methods are given below

Complete blood cell count


In this test different blood compoenents like RBCs, WBCs, Platelets, Hemoglobin etc are analyzed for possible deficiency of one of these components.

Blood Film Test


In this test a thin film of RBCs is prepared on slide and then analyzed under microscope by magnifying it at suitable position. This test distinguishes the auxiliary deformation of the RBCs.

Hemoglobin Test


Hemoglobin is another important indicator to identify poikilocytes. This is very simple test and can be performed easily. Procedure of this test is same as of complete blood cell count.

Poikilocytosis Pictures

 

 

 

Poikilocytosis Symptoms

Some common symptoms of poikilocytosis include

  • Weight loss
  • Breathless due to low hemoglobin count
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomitting
  • Low blood pressure
  • Anemia
  • Nervousness
  • Lethargy 
 

Poikilocytosis Treatment

Poikilocytosis treatment depends upon the severity of disease. For example if patient has poikilocytes count then intravenous administration of blood products and important nutrients is necessary in order to cope with emergency condition. RBCs shape deformity is basically a genetic disorder that has symptomatic treatment but can not be eradicate completely. Patient may require some chemotherapeutic agents at some stage to avoid to restrict the development of bone marrow cancer.

In mild to moderate cases oral therapy is quite effective to treat RBCs deficiency like intake B-complex enriched diet like green leafy vegetables, eggs, dairy products, milk and red meat.

Battledore Placenta - Definition, Complications, Pictures, Causes, Pathology

What is Battledore Placenta


The battledore placenta can be characterized as an unusual insertion of the umbilical cord. The condition is otherwise called the marginal cord insertion. Battledore placenta can be found in relationship with different conditions, for example,


  • IUD impediment,
  • Pre-mature birth
  • Abnormalities or low-weight 
  • Monochorionic twin pregnancy

Battledore Placenta Definition


The term used to describe the condition has been picked due to its similarity with racket used in battledore. This was an earlier form of  today badminton. It is imperative to comprehend that, when this condition happens, it doesn't affect the physiological functions of placenta so, no clinical intervention is required. It is evaluated that around 30% of the births exhibit some anomaly associated with umbilical tissues, with battledore placenta being only one of them.

Battledore Placenta Statistics or Prevalence


This condition has an occurrence rate of 7% among normal pregnancies. But if we discuss other physiological and pathological pregnancy conditions like twin pregnancies or triplet pregnancies, the occurrence rate is 25%. Pointing out the accurate area of the umbilical line is very important clinically, if pregnancy is already associated with some kind fetal abnormalities or risk factors.

Battledore Placenta Pictures or Images

Battledore Placenta - Definition, Complications, Pictures, Causes, Pathology
Battledore Placenta - Definition, Complications, Pictures, Causes, Pathology


Battledore Placenta - Definition, Complications, Pictures, Causes, Pathology
Battledore Placenta - Definition, Complications, Pictures, Causes, Pathology


Battledore Placenta Pathophysiology


With regards to the battledore placenta, the issue is given by the way that the exact point of insertion of the placental cord is too close a distance from the placenta. As evaluated by researchers , the separation is under 2 cm. But a recent research has indicated that distance is around 1cm.

The condition may become worse if leads to the velamentous string insertion. This pathophysiological change may develop due to placental trophotropism and it can be experienced at a later phase of the pregnancy.

Velamentous cord insertion


The velamentous cord insertion is basically a clinical condition of placental cord in which cord is inserted on the membranes, before entering the placenta. This condition may complicate the physiological functions of placenta. The umbilical  blood vessels may become fragile and rupture at any time.

Battledore Placenta - Definition, Complications, Pictures, Causes, Pathology
Battledore Placenta - Definition, Complications, Pictures, Causes, Pathology

Battledore Placenta Complications


Clinically it is correlated that the following clinical complications are associated with battledore placenta for example


  • Restricted blood supply to placenta
  • Increase pressure in lower abdomin
  • Distress of the fetus
  • Prolapse of the cord
  • Pain
  • Restriction of the intrauterine growth

Battledore Placenta Research


The most common problem connected with battledore placenta is pain or distress, it was clinically observed that there might be some level of uteroplacental deficiency in case of battledore placenta with some other underlying risk factors. This area requires some extensive clinical research to rule out these complications are purely due to battledore placenta or due to some other hidden pathological conditions.

Is viral bronchitis contagious?

Acute Viral Bronchitis


One of the most common ailments, especially among children and frail adults, is acute viral bronchitis. In most people myriads of germs lurk in the nose and throat, ready to find their way into the air passages and cause trouble there. In many cases acute viral bronchitis develops as a complication of the common cold. In children, enlarged adenoids and diseased tonsils may have much to do with the tendency to repeated attacks of acute viral bronchitis. In some adults there appears to be a peculiar lack of resistance to this condition. In others, allergy plays an important causative role.

Exposure to cold from improper clothing may be conducive to bronchitis. Along with the chilling there is a lowering of resistance, and the alert germs take advantage of the opportunity to overcome the existing natural resistance. Bronchitis is a common complication of measles, scarlet fever, whooping cough, influenza, typhoid fever, and other infections. Chlorine and some other gases or fumes accidentally encountered in chemical laboratories or manufacturing establishments can produce severe forms of acute viral bronchitis.

The early symptoms of a typical case of acute viral bronchitis are mild fever, mild headache, chilliness, some hoarseness and wheezing, a persistent but at first unproductive cough, and a "raw" sensation behind the breast bone. When the cough becomes productive, the feeling of distress behind the breastbone usually lessens or subsides. Ordinarily, acute viral bronchitis runs its course in a few days, but it may become persistent, lingering on for months and finally becoming chronic viral bronchitis.

Is viral bronchitis contagious?
Is viral bronchitis contagious?


Acute Viral Bronchitis Treatment at home


1. If a fever is present, broncho-pneumonia must be suspected and medical attention should be provided.

2. As long as there is any fever, keep the patient in bed in a moderately warm room, and keep the temperature in the room as nearly constant as possible.

3. If the patient is a smoker, his smoking should be discontinued.

4. If there is difficulty in breathing or a marked feeling of tightness in the central portion of the chest,
give steam inhalations thrice daily.

5. Give the patient hot fomentations to the chest twice a day, and apply a moist chest pack to the upper chest overnight, taking care not to let him become chilled at any time.

6. Once a day for the first two days, at the time of giving the fomentations, give a hot foot bath
also, and continue the treatment long enough to produce free perspiration. Be especially careful not to allow any chilling of the patient as long as he is perspiring.

7. If definite improvement is not seen within two days, call a doctor. He may need to prescribe a cough
remedy and to use some antibiotics to combat infection.

8. If the bronchitis is a complication of some other disease, or if it was caused by the inhalation of
irritating or corrosive gases or fumes, it is especially important to give the patient the benefit of a physician's care.

Chronic Viral bronchitis


Chronic viral bronchitis may develop after one or more attacks of acute viral bronchitis, but many cases that are thought to be chronic viral bronchitis may be something more serious, such as pulmonary emphysema, tuberculosis, or bronchiogel1ic carcinoma (in adults). It may complicate or follow any disease or condition which involves protracted or repeated irritation or inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes.

In a report of the United States Surgeon General's Advisory Committee, which had been given the assignment of studying the relationship between smoking and health, it was stated that cigarette smoking is the most important of the causes of chronic viral bronchitis in the United States, and increases the risk of dying from chronic viral bronchitis.

A dry cough, worse in the mornings, is characteristic. The cough is more severe and more likely to bring up sputum in the wintertime and following a cold. Wheezing and difficulty of breathing eventually develop in many cases. Fever is rare. The condition may become worse from year to year, but since the discovery of antibiotics it has proved possible to bring about improvement in many cases of chronic viral bronchitis in which secondary viral infection is a factor.

Chronic Viral bronchitis Treatment at home


1. Apply to a physician or to your local health department for an examination to determine whether or not what seems to be chronic viral bronchitis is really a more serious disease. Especially is this advice applicable to older people.

2. Do not smoke.

3. Avoid dusty air.

4. Correct the diet. Do not eat meat, fried food, greasy food, highly seasoned food, pastry, desserts, sweets, confections, or much starch. The diet should consist largely of fruits and vegetables.

5. In cool weather be sure to keep the limbs warmly clothed, giving special attention to the ankles and
wrists.

6. Use steam inhalations once a day.

7. Hot and cold foot baths, fomentations to the chest followed

Chlamydial conjunctivitis vs. Gonococcal conjunctivitis Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Chlamydial conjunctivitis


The underlying causes of conjunctivitis are variable but bacterial bacterial conjunctivitis is developed due to some kind of infection caused by some kind of staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pneumoniae or hemophilus influenzae etc. Chlamydial conjunctivitis is one of the most commonly occurring type of bacterial conjunctivitis to healthy individuals.


Acute chlamydial conjunctivitis is a kind of bacterial conjunctivitis that is developed due to infection caused by micro-organism termed as chlamydia trachomatis.  chlamydia trachomatis is well known for spreading sexually transmitted disease (STD). The acute eye disorder is also called as chlamydial inclusion Conjunctivitis in healthy individuals.


Chlamydial conjunctivitis complications


  •     Corneal ulcer, scar
  •     Bonding of eyelids to the eyeball, which may be partial or total
  •     Permanent eye damage, loss of vision
  •     Higher risk for other complications like central nervous system problems, pneumonia, septicemia
  •     Inflamed intraocular cavities
  •     Chronic recurrence of the condition

Chlamydial conjunctivitis treatment


  •     Regularly wash eye with some antiseptic solution like boric acid or normal saline.
  •     Rinse eyes with ice cold water to reduce the inflammation caused by chlaymdia trachomatis.
  •     Instill drops of some broad spectrum antibiotic like chramphenicol along with steroids like dexamethasone.
  •     Avoid eyes from heat exposure because it will increase irritation and swelling.
  •     Repeat the above mentioned procedure for 5-6 days to eradicate infection completely. 

Chlamydial conjunctivitis vs. Gonococcal conjunctivitis Symptoms, Causes and Treatment
Chlamydial conjunctivitis vs. Gonococcal conjunctivitis Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Gonococcal conjunctivitis



Gonorrheal conjunctivitis is one of the most severe of the infections that involve the eyes, and it can be the most tragic. It is caused by the same germ that causes venereal gonorrhea. The germ is carried to the eyes by fingers or towels that have been contaminated by contact with some of the discharge from a gonorrheal infection. It can also be acquired by a newborn babe at the time of birth from direct contact with the genital tissues of  an infected mother. Without prompt and adequate treatment, gonorrheal conjunctivitis frequently causes blindness by destruction of the tissues of the eye.


The first symptoms appear from twelve hours to three days after the germs contact the membranes of the eye. There is extreme redness, swelling, and tenseness of the eyelids. A profuse discharge comes from between the eyelids, which is at first watery and bloody and soon becomes laden with pus. The eye burns and smarts and feels painful. It is tender to touch.


From the very first, extreme care must be taken to prevent the infection from being carried to the other eye (if only one eye is infected) or to some other person.Anyone caring for the patient should wear a surgical gown, face mask, rubber gloves, and protective glasses while with the patient. All materials used in treating the patient, such as towels and compresses, should be placed at once in a disinfectant solution before being destroyed or laundered. Such a solution can be prepared by dissolving one teaspoonful of lysol in two quarts (two liters) of water.


Gonococcal conjunctivitis complications


  •     Gonorrheal conjunctivitis may spread to other organs in case of poor hygiene.
  •     Long persistance of  gonorrheal conjunctivitis may lead to corneal ulcer or damages deep tissues of eyes.
  •     Eye redness may incrase with passage of time
  •     Pus like fluid may produce may produce in some cases.
  •     Early intervention may decrease the severity and limit further damages.


Gonococcal conjunctivitis treatment



1. The patient should be placed under the care of a doctor as soon as possible. Preferably, the patient should be treated in a hospital. Methods of treatment now available provide very good prospects of recovery with preservation of normal eyesight provided they are employed early in the course of the disease. Antibiotic and steroidal therapy administered usually to control the infection promptly.


2. Cold compresses (wrung from ice water) applied to the eyes help to reduce the swelling and congestion of the eyelids and make the patient more comfortable. These can be used continuously at first and then intermittently as inflammation subsides.

Bacterial conjunctivitis treatment with home remedies

The moist membrane that lines the under surface of the eyelids and covers the "white" part of the eye (up to the circular  margin of the cornea) is called the conjunctiva. Any inflammation of this membrane is therefore called conjunctivitis. Here we will describe three varieties of bacteria conjunctivitis.

Acute Bacterial Conjunctivitis


The redness and swelling of the  conjunctiva in this form of conjunctivitis is usually more pronounced on the under surfaces of the eyelids than over the "white" part of the eye. Early in the disease there is a watery discharge from between the eyelids. Later the discharge contains more mucus and, in severe cases, a mixture of mucus and pus. The patient complains of scratching, burning, and smarting sensations in the affected eyelids.

Because the infection is caused by a germ (anyone of several carried by contaminated fingers, towel, or hand kerchief) both eyes are often involved. Any age group may be affected, but the disease is more common in children and young adults. Often several in the same household or school are affected about the same time, the disease being easily communicated. The course of the disease when not treated is ten to fourteen days. The epidemic form of acute bacterial conjunctivitis is commonly known as "pinkeye." The symptoms are intense.
Bacterial conjuctivitis treatment with home remedies
Bacterial conjuctivitis treatment with home remedies


Acute Bacterial Conjunctivitis treatment with home remedies


1. Take all reasonable precautions to keep the infection from being transmitted to other persons. Wash the hands with soap after each contact with the patient's face. Use paper face towels and hand kerchiefs and burn these after use. Bed linen which has come in contact with the patient must be disinfected before it is laundered.

2. Wash you eyes with boric acid solution three time a day to avoid the spreading of infection and reduce the severity of disease.

3. Apply a series of compresses wrung out of ice water to the affected eyes for a period of five minutes at least three times a day.

4. Use rose water drops that will decrease the burning sensation due to inflammation of conjuctiva.

Chronic Bacterial Conjunctivitis


The symptoms here are about the same as in acute bacterial conjunctivitis, only not so severe and usually worse at night. The disease tends to last for weeks and even months. Causes include a carry-over
from a neglected case of acute bacterial conjunctivitis, irritation from polluted atmosphere, a poor state of general health, insufficient sleep over a long period of time, indulgence in intoxicating drinks, overuse of the eyes, the need for eyeglasses, chronic inflammation of the tear duct, and allergy.

Chronic Bacterial Conjunctivitis treatment with home remedies 


1. Correct all conditions that may have contributed to the disease.

2. Follow a general health building program including the eating of an adequate diet with sufficient vitamins.

3. Cleanse eyelid margins and lashes at least twice daily with cotton applicators moistened with warm water.

4. Wash you eyes three time a day with boric acid to avoid further spreading of infection.

5. Instill sulfa or antibiotic drops or ointment several times daily or directed by your physician.