Mycotic Aneurysm Symptoms, Causes, Ultrasound, Treatment

It is a condition in which due to thinning or weakening of artery wall there is extreme local inflammation of an artery. This happens due to a bacterial infection. As it occurs due to an infection so it is also known as infective aneurysm or bacterial aneurysm. The word mycotic is referred to “fungal” and the bacteria involved in infection are mostly anaerobic bacteria. The anaerobic bacteria involved in infection are bacteroides and clostridium species. Mycotic aneurysm occurs abundantly on the terminal area of arterial branches.

The most reported harmful aneurysms are intracranial aneurysms. Neuro-vascular aneurysm are rare. The most common pathogens responsible for aneurysm are staphylococcus, salmonella and streptococcus species. Aneurysms most frequently occurs in aorta, then in peripheral arteries and less in number within cerebral arteries. The mycotic aneurysm in aorta is the most harmful aneurysm ever reported. As it is associated with limbs and organs. The infections are formed by the following mechanisms:

  • By the formation of septic emboli
  • Septicemia
  • And spreading of infection from nearby organ 
  • The most common sites where the aneurysm may occur are:
  • Abdominal visceral area
  • Thoracic area
  • Lower arteries 
  • Aorta (the main artery)
  • Last but not least intracranial arteries.
Mycotic Aneurysm Symptoms, Causes, Ultrasound, Treatment

Mycotic Aneurysm Causes

The most common cause or the aneurysm is an infection which may be occur by aerobic or anaerobic bacteria. Aerobic bacteria involving are staphylococcus and streptococcus species and anaerobic bacteria involving are clostridium species and bacteroides. Other causes associated may be osteomyelitis in the thoracic region of vertebral column and pneumonitis.

Infection may spread from the nearby organ or it may be occur due to any obstruction and lesion on the artery wall. The lesion on the wall of artery may become severe due to less oxygen availability. Any medication may have a side effect of an infection in artery during drug distribution.

Mycotic Aneurysm Symptoms

At starting the symptoms of mycotic aneurysm may not occur which makes it difficult to diagnose the condition. But when infection become severe with time the symptoms appear are:

  • If the aneurysm is localized to an artery then the patient may appear febrile or may show sepsis.
  • Interscapular pain is experienced due to infection in thoracic region of vertebrae 
  • Aortic aneurysm cause unbearable abdominal pain.
  • Local inflammation may occur due to infection is in peripheral region.
  • Neuropathic pain.
  • In Cerebral aneurysm the patient feel pain, headache, seizures and other neurological symptoms.

Mycotic Aneurysm Ultrasound

With the technique of ultrasound only the peripheral area can be diagnosed. Ultrasound in not considered reliable for the diagnosis of aortic aneurysm. When ultrasound of peripheral region is done the hypo echoic lesion is observed adjacent to an artery. Turbulent flow is also seen during ultrasound imaging, as the blood entering artery and leaving artery is seen clearly known as systole and diastole respectively. Soft tissue inflammation also seen along with the hematoma which covers the lumen of mycotic aneurysm. The images obtained can’t be considered obvious because the images obtained are not reliable for other regions of aneurysm.

Mycotic Aneurysm Treatment

Treatment of mycotic Aneurysm mainly depends upon etiology of disease. e.g if infection is main cause of mycotic Aneurysm then anti-infective and anti-fungal drugs are min choice to eradicate infection completely. However, some cases required necessarily surgery to correct structural deformities.
Mycotic Aneurysm Symptoms, Causes, Ultrasound, Treatment Mycotic Aneurysm Symptoms, Causes, Ultrasound, Treatment Reviewed by Simon Albert on March 23, 2017 Rating: 5
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