What Defect Causes Pituitary Dwarfism?


Pituitary dwarfism is defined as a condition in which pituitary gland is not able to produce proper amount of growth hormone. Growth hormone is essential for growth and development of body. Growth hormone initiates mitotic growth. If pituitary gland is not working properly, there will be decreased or no release of growth hormone. This growth hormone deficiency will lead to retarded mitotic growth of genitals. The sex organs function properly but their size is affected. Basically pituitary dwarfism occurs due to different types of problems in pituitary gland. Hypophysis is another name of pituitary gland.

Pituitary gland have two main halves i.e. anterior and posterior one. Total 6 hormones are regulated by anterior half pituitary gland. These hormones are growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone. Whereas posterior half of pituitary gland produces oxytocin and vasopressin. Hypothalamus, which is present in the lower part of fore brain, is responsible for intriguing pituitary gland. Hypothalamus secretes growth hormone releasing hormone which in turn trigger pituitary gland to release growth hormone.

What Defect Causes Pituitary Dwarfism


Growth hormone directly acts on liver and other tissues of body and stimulates them. As a result of liver and tissues stimulation, the insulin like growth factor 1 is released. This insulin like growth factor is mainly involves in stimulating growth of muscles and bones. It causes bones to grow in length and helps muscles to increase protein synthesis. There are various factors affecting release of growth hormone. It is a complex phenomenon. Abnormalities at any stage can cause problems in growth hormone release leading to pituitary dwarfism.

In case, when all the 6 hormones of anterior half of pituitary gland are not releasing properly, then this condition is termed as panhypopituitarism. Deficiency of growth hormone is the common form of pituitary dwarfism. If growth hormone is secreted in decreased amount, it will slow down the growth process but organs will develop completely. Some common causes which may lead to pituitary dwarfism include genetic mutation. Tumor in pituitary gland can lead to pituitary dwarfism. Increased exposure of Central nervous system to radiation may cause pituitary dwarfism. Leukemia is the type of cancer is also responsible for causing pituitary dwarfism. Accidental or surgical injury of pituitary gland is the rare cause.

Trauma in hypothalamus or pituitary gland leads to pituitary dwarfism and decreased growth hormone release. Craniopharyngioma is the common tumor found near pituitary gland. craniopharyngioma can cause problems in nervous system. Symptoms associated with tumor are nausea, vomiting and vision problems. Due to deficiency in growth hormone, child remain small and have immature but chubby face appearance. The growth curves are not followed due to the deficiency of growth hormone. Patient may have double vision. Common symptom is retarded mitotic growth of child. The mental condition of patient is not affected and he acts normally. Patient's intelligence is also intact. Growth hormone releases more at night time during sleeping. So patient is asked to sleep well at night and take sleep as much as he can.
What Defect Causes Pituitary Dwarfism? What Defect Causes Pituitary Dwarfism? Reviewed by Simon Albert on August 07, 2017 Rating: 5
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