Gingival hyperplasia Classification, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hyperplasia of the gums is a slowly progressive and gradual proliferation of the gums in the dental arch of the jaw and mandibular, caused by inflammatory or non-inflammatory factors. Hyperplasia of the gums can be either diffused or focal. Gingival hyperplasia is considered as non malignant kind of hypertrophy around gums. The association with dental disease is most commonly observed factor in case of gingival hyperplasia.

The other most commonly observed conditions that are associated with gingival hyperplasia are exposure to immunosuppressive drugs and genetic predispositions. Clinical manifestations associated with gingival hyperplasia are visible swelling in the cheek area and difficulty in eating. The diagnosis is derived through in-depth oral cavity examination, X ray assessment of dental disease, associated ultrasound and visible external edema. Histological examination provides better results to confirm diagnosis especially in case of findings like fibrous connective tissue and thick or dense epithelium etc.

Generally, gingival hyperplasia is classified into three main categories depending upon their underlying causes or etiological factors.

Drug induced Gingival hyperplasia

About 60-70% cases of gingival hyperplasia are somehow induced by drug therapy like anti-convulsants such as phenytoin, Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine.

Dental disease related Gingival hyperplasia

Periodontitis and other gingival pathological conditions are often associated with abnormal proliferation of gum cells leading to gingival hyperplasia. It has also been proposed that dental braces may also act triggering factor for gingival hyperplasia.

Genetically induced Gingival hyperplasia

Though, cases in which genetic predisposition is observed are somehow less than above mentioned factors but still genetic susceptibility remains an obvious cause of gingival hyperplasia.

 Gingival hyperplasia Symptoms

Symptoms of gingival hyperplasia are common in almost all cases in which some are visible through naked eye while others can be seen via histological examination. These symptoms are as follows

  • Swelling around gums
  • Abnormal proliferation of gums cells
  • Redness
  • Pus formation around gums
  • Dental plaque can also be seen in case of poor oral hygiene.
  • Bruising 
  • Bad breath
  • Loose teeth
  • Feeling of tenderness around gums 

Gingival hyperplasia Causes

It is not so much to find out obvious cause associated with gingival hyperplasia. As mentioned above drug therapies are on top that induce such kind of hyperplasia. Eaxct underlying mechanism that drives such proliferation of gum cells is still not fully understood in case of drug induced gingival hyperplasia. Other causes that play important role in pathogenesis of gingival hyperplasia are dental braces, oral cavity surgeries, oral and mucousal infections, poor oral hygiene and genetic predisposition.

Gingival hyperplasia Treatment

As far as treatment is concerned, first you need to find out underlying cause of gingival hyperplasia. Suppose if you having such problem due to drug therapy then consult with health care provider and shift your therapy to alternatives or second line therapies. If your routine drug therapy is not that much necessary then abruptly discontinue it. Use mouthwash that contains chlorhexidine gluconate because it readily kills oral cavity micro-organisms. It is strongly recommend that wash you teeth after every six months from any professional dentist because it is very beneficial in reducing risk of tooth problems.
Gingival hyperplasia Classification, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment Gingival hyperplasia Classification, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment Reviewed by Simon Albert on December 21, 2019 Rating: 5
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