Pigmentary Retinopathy (PR) Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Differential Diagnosis, Treatment

Pigmentary retinopathy (PR) is a category of inherited, degenerative retinal illnesses characterized by gradual degradation of the photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and other retinal structures. Vision loss, difficulties with night vision, and the development of floaters in the visual field are common pigmentary retinopathy symptoms. Other symptoms of pigmentary retinopathy include sensitivity to light (photophobia), inability to focus (nyctalopia), tunnel vision (hyperopia), and color vision impairments (deficiencies).

Pigmentary retinopathy is the term used to describe the invasion of the retina by melanin-containing macrophages or retinal pigment epithelial cells in individuals with dystrophic, pathogenic, or other systemic disorders. Pigmentary retinopathy resembles "retinitis pigmentosa" due to the presence of dystrophic and pigmentary retinal abnormalities, as well as the common connection of vision problems, decreased visual acuity, constricted visual fields, and aberrant electroretinographic results. Therefore, pigmentary retinopathy is a common consequence of several retinal and chorioretinal abnormalities and a common symptom of various metabolic and neurological conditions.

Pigmentary Retinopathy Definition

The term pigmentary retinopathy (PR) is used to refer to a collection of inherited, degenerative retinal abnormalities that are characterized by persistent photoreceptor loss, atrophy, and cell death in the photoreceptors and nearby retinal layers. In severe situations, when the central retina is affected, pigmentary retinopathy mostly impacts the rods and ultimately the cones, resulting in blindness.

Pigmentary Retinopathy Symptoms

In the early stages of the condition, patients may have nyctalopia, sometimes known as night blindness, as well as a narrowing of their peripheral visual field and, in some cases, a loss of their central visual acuity or visual field. An individual who has pigmentary retinopathy will have mottling of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), clustering of the damaged retinal pigment epithelium dispersed in bone-spicule patterns, attenuated retinal veins, and waxy pallor of the optic disc.

Pigmentary Retinopathy (PR) Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Differential Diagnosis, Treatment

Pigmentary Retinopathy Causes

Rare and sporadic, unilateral pigmentary retinopathy is a form of retinal degeneration that is brought on during embryogenesis by a somatic mutation. A true form of unilateral PR is hard to diagnose and doesn't happen very often. This is because it often turns out to be a form of retinal degeneration caused by something else (Secondary), and it also takes a long time to rule out a bilateral asymmetric form of PR. Thus, a complete personal and family history aids in the differential diagnosis.

Pigmentary Retinopathy Differential Diagnosis

There are a number of acquired retinal illnesses with fundoscopic characteristics that resemble pigmentary retinopathy, including those with post-traumatic or post-inflammatory origins. In past, unilateral "pseudo-pigmentary retinopathy" has been linked to a variety of conditions, including choroidal melanoma, corneal trauma, forceps-related birth trauma, medication toxic effects (chloroquine), cephaloridine, contraceptive pills, generalized unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, and ocular toxoplasmosis.

Pigmentary Retinopathy Treatment

There is currently no effective treatment for pigmentary retinopathy. However, none of the recommended antioxidant, vitamin, and nutritional supplement therapy have shown any real effect on PR patients. The current course of treatment consists of supportive measures such as low vision help, genetic testing, counseling, and the treatment of coexisting disorders.

Low-vision aids, such as magnifiers and specialized glasses, can also be useful for accomplishing visual activities. The progression of the disease can sometimes be slowed down with the help of prescription drugs and laser therapy.

Pigmentary Retinopathy (PR) Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Differential Diagnosis, Treatment Pigmentary Retinopathy (PR) Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Differential Diagnosis, Treatment Reviewed by Simon Albert on January 12, 2023 Rating: 5
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