High Flow Nasal Cannula Settings, Fio2, Flow rate, Peep, Indications

A standard nasal cannula has a flow rate of 2 - 6 liters per minute. However, peak inspiratory flow rates in individuals experiencing respiratory distress might be significantly higher. When the patient's inspiratory flow rate exceeds the amount of air delivered by the cannula, room air will enter their lungs. As a result, the patient will not get the exact amount of oxygen that is needed and oxygen dilution occurs.

What is High Flow Nasal Cannula?

High-Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) is a system that is heated and humidified, and it enables the delivery of a predetermined fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) at extremely high flow rates. 

The delivery of oxygen with a high-flow nasal cannula, or HFNC, can achieve flow rates significantly higher than those possible with a conventional nasal cannula. As a result, the lungs receive more of the prescribed oxygen and experience less room air entrainment. The supply of oxygen you want to give the patients is not subject to the same dilution phenomenon.

High Flow Nasal Cannula Settings, Fio2, Flow rate, Peep, Indications

High Flow Nasal Cannula Settings

Three main parts make up the machine: a flow generator, an air-oxygen blender, and a humidifier that keeps the gas mixture at 31 to 37° Celsius. HFNC can deliver a FiO2 of 100%. Standard settings vary from 10 to 60 liters per minute. The physiological processes behind the action of HFNC, comprise of increased tidal volume, higher end-expiratory volume, positive end-expiratory pressure, dead space washout, and lowered respiratory rate. 

High Flow Nasal Cannula Fio2

 HFNC provides more precise FiO2 delivery between 21% -100% compared to low-flow nasal cannula therapy. Although HFNC is capable of delivering a maximum of 1.0 FiO2, this value decreases with decreasing flow rates and nasal cannula that do not fit properly in the nostrils.

High Flow Nasal Cannula Flow rate

High-flow nasal cannulas (HFNC) can provide high flow rates of up to 60-70 liters per minute while producing a high percentage of inspired oxygen (FiO2) and generating a low degree of positive pressure. High flow rates improve functional residual capacity, eliminate dead space in the upper airways, and enable accurate oxygen delivery, all of which contribute to improved respiratory performance. Additionally, the heated and humidified gas supplied by HFNC improves patient comfort, which boosts adherence and enhances therapeutic results.

High Flow Nasal Cannula Peep

Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is produced by High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) therapy. PEEP is produced when the airway becomes resistant to gas passage, creating a backpressure that leaves the airway open during exhalation. The flow rate and the patient's open or closed mouth determine how much PEEP is produced by HFNC therapy. When using closed-mouth breathing, the best estimations are 1 cm H2O of PEEP for every 10 L/min of flow.

High Flow Nasal Cannula Indications

High-Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) is a non-invasive pulmonary support system that delivers warmed and humidified gas at flow rates greater than a patient's inspiratory flow demand. The following are the primary indications for HFNC in adults:

  • Respiratory hypoxia brought on by pneumonia
  • Post-extubation, even in individuals deemed low-risk
  • Pre-oxygenation before intubation
  • Acute lung edema

High Flow Nasal Cannula Settings, Fio2, Flow rate, Peep, Indications High Flow Nasal Cannula Settings, Fio2, Flow rate, Peep, Indications Reviewed by Simon Albert on November 26, 2023 Rating: 5
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