Lymphopenia - Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Ranges

White blood cells are important for the humans. These are considerably valuable to maintain the immune system in body. However, the level of white blood cells increase or decrease according to the health conditions of a person. Lymphopenia which is also known as Lymphocytopenia, is a condition in which the level of lymphocytes comes down in the blood. Basically, these are white blood cells and responsible for numerous functions including the immunity maintenance in body.

Lymphopenia can defined as health situation in which level of lymphocytes decrease abnormally. Decrease in these white blood cells creates serious loss of immunity in the body. It is widely accepted that white blood cells are responsible for the development of immune system in body. Patients with this disorder normally don’t show any clear symptom.

Therefore, keen observation with modern diagnosis is very important. In most of the cases, patients feel loss of muscular power. They also experience repeated attack of infections including viral, fungal or bacterial due to lack of immunity in the body. Contact with specialists if you have these symptoms.
Lymphopenia - Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Ranges

Lymphopenia Ranges and Classification

In most of the cases, it is further divided according to type of lymphocytes decreased. A straight term is used when all types of lymphocytes are decreasing.
  1. T Lymphopenia: This is related to the T deficiency. The condition is normally developed in case of HIV attack. On the other hand, this condition could be Idiopathic which is a rare heterogeneous disorder. In this condition the T cells go below 300 cells per micro-liter.
  2. B Lymphopenia:   This is related to the deficiency of B Lymphocytes. It causes humoral immune deficiency. Cause of this condition is regular intake of medicines suppressing the body immune system.
  3. NK Lymphopenia: This condition is very rare. In this type, the body develops killer cells.

Lymphopenia Symptoms

Symptoms of lymphopenia greatly depends upon the the underlying problem. Similarly, symptoms may variate in one patient to other due to pharmacogenomics, disease etiology and overall health of patient. Clinically, some commonly observed symptoms are

  • Spleenomegaly
  • Compromised immune system
  • High frequecny of infection
  • Longer duration of infection
  • Tonsilitis
  • Swollen lymph nodes around tonsils and abdominal area
  • Swelling around joints
  • Rashes
  • Generalized waekness
  • Fatigue

Lymphopenia Diagnosis

Several diagnosis methods are available to identify the Lymphopenia. However, medical experts always prefer to count the blood cells in order to check higher or lower number of lymphocytes. This screening highly depends on the accuracy of counting. Age of the patient is considered a determining factor in this procedure.

Lymphopenia Causes

In most of the cases, the Lymphopenia finishes as the infection resolves. Patients who have Idiopathic disorder may experience low but stable count of CD4+ cells. Lymphocytic deficiency (lymphopenia) may occur in various malignancies

  • Malignant Cancers like lymphoma, leukemia etc 
  • Immune system disorders like auto-immune disease or HIV infection 
  • Chemotherapy or Antiviral therapy 
  • Deep tissue injury
  • Trauma

Patients with reduced humoral immunity, which can be quantitated by measuring immunoglobulin levels, often exhibit bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, skin and urinary tract. Severe depletion of T-cells potentially leads to many unusual opportunistic infections, including causes of viruses, fungi and pneumonia. Instead of neutropenia, patients affected with lymphopenia may be worrying about symptoms of infection or a flu-like with incredibly low grade features.

Treatments for Lymphopenia

Treatment is possible with increase or decrease in the normal level of Lymphocytes. Treatment depends on the current level of lymphocytes as well as causes. Following treatments are recommended for reliable cure.

  • Gamma Globulin: This is an antibody rich substance. This substance helps to avoid the infections. People with low blood count are usually treated with Gamma Globulin.
  • Bone Marrow Transplant: This is effective but expensive treatment. It is usually utilized for the patients who have problems related to bone marrow.
  • Infection treatment: Patients experiencing infections should be given congruent medicines containing antibodies and antiviral agents.
Lymphopenia - Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Ranges Lymphopenia - Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Ranges Reviewed by Simon Albert on February 05, 2017 Rating: 5
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