Mandibular Hypoplasia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Surgery


The word mandibular means lower jaw line or jaw bone and hypoplasia means under growth or incomplete growth. So as the name indicates, it is an incomplete development or growth of lower jaw line. Mandibular hypoplasia closely resembles micrognathia in which the lower jaw is under sized. The mandibular hypoplasia may be congenital or acquired after injury or trauma. If it is congenital, then the exact cause cannot be identified in new borns. It can be a part of several specific under developments. Other than jaw line, eyes, nose and upper jaw are also affected. The patient have deviated chin.

Mandibular Hypoplasia Symptoms


The visual symptoms of mandibular hypoplasia involve asymmetric features of face specially around mouth because lower jaw line is involved. Patient have deviated chin causing asymmety of mouth. It can further cause complications based on its severity. Patient may feel difficulty in breathing. There may be problem in eating, chewing and swallowing food. This condition can lead to weight loss or failure to thrive in infants and sleep apnea. All the complications are associated with mouth, so sometimes a feeding tube become necessary until surgery. Feeding tube helps a lot in food and nutritional intake.

Mandibular Hypoplasia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Surgery

Mandibular Hypoplasia Causes


Mandibular hypoplasia is usually congenital but it can also be acquired after injury or trauma. As the name indicates, it is the incomplete development of lower jaw line. The imaging of this condition shows maxillary and mandibular lesions. These lesions rarely include radiolucency with irregular, defined or poorly defined borders. So the widening of boundary of orbits causes hypoplasia. Along with hypoplasia, poor pneumatisation of ipsilateral maxila also occurs. In mandibular hypoplasia, not only hypoplasia of mandible is involved but hypoplasia of ramus, zygomatic arch and abnormal coronoid process is also involved. Some congenital syndrome may show mandibular hypoplasia as a clinical sign.

Mandibular Hypoplasia Treatment


Surgery is the only treatment option for mandibular hypoplasia. Reconstruction of facial features is performed in surgery. The extent of surgery is dependent on its degree of under development. A series of bone grafting is performed to rebuilt mandible. An oral or maxillofacial surgeon can perform this reconstruction surgery. Surgery of lower jaw line is quite complicated because mandibular jaw line perform many functions and have many purposes. Other than functioning, it has its importance in maintaining facial structure. Sometimes surgery completely rebuilt facial features and also corrects or eliminates complications arised from mandibular hypoplasia.

Mandibular Hypoplasia Surgery


Mandibular hypoplasia can only be corrected with surgery. It is a reconstruction surgery in which the facial features are rebuilt. A series of bone grafting is performed to rebuilt lower jaw line and associated asymmetric features. The deviated chin is aligned. If nose, eyes and upper jaw are also involved, then surgery will take long to rebuilt and align all of them. The extent of reconstruction surgery depends upon the severity of mandibular hypoplasia. Surgery have greater success rate because it does not only rebuilt facial features but also combat associated complications like difficulty in eating and swallowing and breathing.
Mandibular Hypoplasia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Surgery Mandibular Hypoplasia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Surgery Reviewed by Simon Albert on April 21, 2018 Rating: 5
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